This paper presents preliminary findings from the school survey carried out in 227 schools in Andhra Pradesh during the school year 2010;11 as part of the Young Lives study. It looks at the factors that contribute to better functioning and performance of primary schools. This is in the context of rising enrollment among 6 to 14 year-olds in India in the wake of the Right to Education Act, and the steady increase in the number of private schools across the whole of India since 2006. It is based on interviews with children and their teachers, along with observations of schools and classroom practice, and the scores attained by the children in Grade 5 tests. District Education Officers were also interviewed.