How does CEI categorize the programs it profiles?

CEI sorts profiled programs into five categories depending on their approach. Developed with input from experts in implementation and research, we believe this is an inclusive framework that captures the universe of non-state education innovations.

  • Delivery

    Direct provision of education or training to students

  • Financing

    Mechanisms that finance students, schools, teachers, or systems

  • Policy & Analysis

    Improving the policy environment and building the education evidence base

  • School Support

    Services or products enabling schools to increase efficiency and effectiveness

  • Student Support

    Services or products increasing access to quality learning experiences


Some programs conduct activities that fall into more than one of the above categories. In that case, they are tagged with additional categories in the "Additional Approach" field. Each program is also tagged using one or many of the sub-categories below.


  • Delivery

    • Franchise of schools/centers
    • Chain of schools/centers
    • Network of schools/centers
    • Mobile schools/centers
    • Online school/center
    • Stand-alone school/center
  • Financing

    • Vouchers and conditional cash transfers
    • Scholarships and financial aid
    • Student/household loans
    • Contracting
    • School loans
    • Pay-for-performance
    • Cross-subsidization
  • Policy & Analysis

    • Regulations and laws
    • Evaluating or improving academic standards
    • Linking research and evidence with policy or implementation
    • Policy frameworks for financing mechanisms
    • Advocacy
  • School Support

    • Parental or community engagement for school accountability
    • Teacher training
    • School leader training
    • School operations or management
    • Teacher evaluation
    • Standardized teaching materials
    • Untraditional schedules
    • Infrastructure and equipment
    • Student assessment and progress
  • Student Support

    • Parental or community engagement in support of students
    • Tutoring
    • Mentorship/internship/job placement
    • Extra-curricular activities
    • Transitional support (from out of school to in school or between school levels)
    • Learning materials for students
    • Community resources
    • Increasing or sustaining enrollment