Originally posted on the EFA GMR’s World Education Blog on the 21st September
A quarter of a century after global education leaders met in Jomtien, Thailand, and boldly announced that “Learning begins at birth”, it is reassuring to see that early learning now features more prominently on the global development agenda:
Target 4.2: “By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education.”
Progress in expanding early childhood programs around the world has been encouraging but uneven. Although access to pre-primary education has expanded in every region since 1999, Latin America and the Caribbean boasts a gross enrolment rate (GER) of almost 75%, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind with a GER of about 19%. Even before the first year of preschool, children from lower socio-economic groups, ethnic and linguistic minority backgrounds, and children with disabilities are more likely to miss out on quality early learning opportunities.
Supporting parents so they can provide stimulating home environments is an important first step to address inequalities. Approaches that expand systems are needed, but simply making poorly performing preschools bigger is not enough. This will not be possible without improving the capacity of the early child care workforce. These professionals will require ￼better training, support and working conditions. Promising approaches to this challenge can already be found. One program in Ghana, Lively Minds, trains and empowers kindergarten teachers and mothers from rural areas in for engaging young children in play-based, creative activities. Leveraging community resources in this way represents the kind of innovative, locally-sourced approaches that can reach underserved families.
Young children’s care, development, and learning are intertwined and depend on a multitude of different sectors and services. While a separate education target for early learning is a big step toward ensuring greater visibility and policy attention to young children, equally important are the goals and targets for poverty reduction, undernutrition and stunting, child and maternal mortality, violence prevention, birth registration, and more.
We know that children cannot learn well if they are unhealthy, unsafe, or hungry. Cross-sector approaches as in India’s Integrated Child Development Services, which includes nutrition, immunization, health check- ups for the mother and child, and informal preschool demonstrate the value of comprehensive interventions. Another promising strategy is to deliver child development messages to parents through existing home visiting programs, as in Jamaica and Pakistan, and cash transfer programs with a parent training component, as in Niger and Colombia. What matters is not where the targets are situated within the goals, but that young children are supported to reach their full potential.
Countries underinvest in the early years, spending on average less than 5% of their education budgets and less than 0.1% of gross domestic product on pre-primary education. Despite limited government funding, parent demand for early learning opportunities is strong, as in some urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa where the growth in private preschools has surged. Yet, high fees, limited regulation, and uneven supply remain significant problems for many poor families.
The EFA GMR Team estimates that overall expenditure per child will need to triple – from US$258 to US$854 – to achieve one year of universal, quality pre-primary education alone. Achieving this increase will require new sources of public and private funding, as well as innovative financing mechanisms to improve affordability for parents. Here experiences like that of Chile, which doubled public spending from 1999 to 2012 through a mixed delivery system that increased subsidies for the most disadvantaged children, are heartening.
Lastly, none of these important issues can truly be addressed without adequate monitoring and evaluation. Poor data has hampered efforts to date to fully document the status of young children. The broad scope of Target 4.2 means that collecting more and better data on pre- primary enrolment will be necessary, but not sufficient. We also will need information and ways to assess provision for 0-2 year olds, which tends to be less formal, small scale and often private. It is encouraging that new tools are available to track child development, including UNICEF’s MICS ECD index. A measure of responsive, stimulating parenting to capture infant-toddler well-being is also under consideration, and hopefully will remain in the final list of indicators. These data should be disaggregated by gender, disability status and key socio-demographic variables.
As the global education community rallies around the new agenda for 2030, we need to ensure that our youngest learners receive comprehensive policy attention and sufficient means for turning promises into realities. This will require coordinated action at all levels to address inequality in early learning opportunities, scale-up innovative approaches to quality, build bridges across sectors, strengthen and support the workforce, and explore new models for financing early childhood systems.
Michelle Neuman is a Program Director at the Results for Development Institute (R4D) with a focus on early childhood development and global education. In her previous role as Senior Education Specialist, she led the World Bank’s global early childhood development work program by carrying out analytical work (including SABER-ECD), providing technical assistance to governments and task teams, and conducting trainings for staff and development partners.
Photo Credit: Hippocampus Learning Centres (Top), and World Vision International (Body)